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parasitoid wasp (Trioxys complanatusAphidiidaeovipositing into the body of a spotted alfalfa aphid, a behaviour that is used in biological pest control.

Inevolutionary ecology, aparasitoidis anorganismthat lives in close association with itshostat the host’s expense, eventually resulting in the death of the host. Parasitoidism is one of six majorevolutionary strategieswithinparasitism, distinguished by the fatalprognosisfor the host, which makes the strategy close topredation.

Among parasitoids, strategies range from living inside the host (endoparasitism), allowing it to continue growing before emerging as an adult, toparalysingthe host and living outside it (ectoparasitism). Hosts can include other parasitoids, resulting inhyperparasitism; in the case ofoak galls, up to five levels of parasitism are possible. Some parasitoidsinfluence their host’s behaviourin ways…

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